Catatonia was first described by Karlbaum in 1874. It was subsequently catogorised as a subtype of schizophrenia. With the recognition of NMS as a form of catatonia and awareness that catatonia could occur in a number of psychiatric and medical illnesses, catatonia is now increasingly identified in clinical practice. Irrespective of the cause, the treatment of catatonia is the same as that of NMS. Benzodiazepine such as lorazepam in high dose are effective in the treatment of catatonia and ECT should be used in patients who do not respond adequately to benzodiazepines. In addition the underlying condition should be treated and in NMS antipsychotics should be withdrawn.